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Zimbabwe's land seizures: Joseph Hanlon's racist myopia

Tony Hawkins
31 May 2013

Tony Hawkins critiques the LSE academic's defence of Zanu-PF's dispossession of the commercial farming class in that country

Land Reform. How Successful?

The success or otherwise of land resettlement in Zimbabwe cannot be judged by how many people are on the land now, but by what is produced, what incomes are earned and whether the economy as a whole benefitted. Joseph Hanlon - an apologist for Zanu-PF's chaotic politically-driven land programme - is either unaware of, or ignores, this crucial point.

It is just one of numerous flaws in his article in which he works hard to avoid confusing his readers with the facts on output, productivity, imports and their macroeconomic implications. In 2000 - the year in which the Fast Track Land Reform (FTLR) took off, Zimbabwe farms produced 3.7 million tonnes of output (excluding estate-grown sugar)). In 2012, the Ministry of Finance estimated output at less than half that (1.7 million tonnes) and just two months ago, the government estimated a 20% fall in plantings for the 2013 season that will translate into lower output this year.

Food and livestock production (excluding beef) collapsed from three million tonnes in 2000 to 1.3 million tonnes 12 years later, with cereal output down 55 percent at 1.1 million tonnes. The country that consumes over two million tonnes of cereals a year and that, prior to land resettlement, was largely self-sufficient in foodstuffs and a substantial exporter of farm produce, now imports some $650 million of food a year, increasing to $731 million in 2012 or 11 percent of total imports.

Understandably given that he is writing a party-political polemic, not serious journalism, Hanlon fails to mention these inconvenient truths preferring to focus on some extremely dubious employment and farm occupation data. According to Hanlon "white farmers" employed "about 250 000" workers. In fact, employment on formal sector farms (as distinct from "white" farms, whatever a "white" farm was) peaked in 1997 at over 350 000 workers and averaged over 330 000 a year right through the 1990s. Such clumsy disregard for the facts typifies his approach. 

The latest annual figure (2010) shows a total formal farming sector figure of 388 000 - the bulk of whom (287 000) were employed on resettled farms. A further 101 000 were employed on large scale commercial farms, or in Hanlon's racist terminology "white" farms. In fact, these are not "white" farms at all, but properties owned by the state, by local and foreign corporates and by Zimbabweans of all races.

These data show that between 2000 and 2010, a total 224 000 jobs were lost on large-scale commercial farms (Hanlon's "white" farms) while 287 000 jobs were created on resettled farms - a net gain of 63 000 jobs in ten years or 6000 a year, during which time the population of Zimbabwe increased by one and a half million people. Hardly a measure of success of which Zimbabwe can be proud.

Numerous other inconvenient truths spoil Hanlon's Zanu-PF panegyric. World Bank data that he quotes with approval show that agricultural value added in constant 2000 prices in 2010 was lower than at Independence in 1980 and less than half its peak in 2001. Output per worker in agriculture rose by a third between 1980 and 2001 but by 2010 had fallen 56 percent. Then there are the latest wage numbers which show that farm workers on resettled farms earn between a third and a half of those employed on large-scale commercial farms, while taken across agriculture as a whole, the average wage is less than 10 percent of the non-farm average.

Just how Hanlon et al can conclude from these data that land resettlement has been a success is best left for them to explain. But this aspect aside, their arguments need to be viewed in a developmental context. One might have hoped that Hanlon's affiliation with the London School of Economics would have opened his eyes to this. Sadly not.

For a start, economic analysis that focuses on a particular industry or sector to the exclusion of all others - as Hanlon's does - is seriously misleading. Hanlon's analysis ignores the spillover effects of land resettlement elsewhere in the economy. The fact is that - regardless of how many people found poorly-paid jobs in agriculture - land reform sparked a 40 percent decline in Zimbabwe's GDP. By mid-2012, non-farm formal sector employment at around 800 000 was 250 000 less than in the late 1990s, four times the gains in agriculture claimed by Hanlon. In 2012, per capita incomes at constant prices were one-third lower than in 2000 and even below their 1960 levels. (World Bank database).

After 2000, national savings and net investment turned negative as incomes plummeted and investors took fright at the disregard of property rights and the rule of law, which of course, extended to the conduct of elections in 2002 and 2008. Another inconvenience left unmentioned by Hanlon.

 Manufacturing and agriculture in Zimbabwe were - still are - closely integrated. The collapse in farm output (ignored by Hanlon) is mirrored by Zimbabwe's de-industrialization. Manufacturing output - in volume terms - was lower in 2012 than in 1980 and two-thirds below its peak. Land resettlement far from putting Zimbabwe on a developmental path has thrust it onto a minerals-driven resource path, whereby the economy continues to de-industrialize.

During the process of economic development typically labour shifts from agriculture to manufacturing and services. One of the drivers of Chinese growth, for example, has been the shift of surplus workers out of low-productivity farming into higher productivity sectors of the economy. Land resettlement in Zimbabwe has had the precisely opposite effect, thereby perpetuating low productivity and incomes in agriculture. Over time employment in agriculture, as a proportion of the total, must - and will- fall, if productivity and living standards are to rise.

Worse, his article shows no understanding of the modern role of agri-business as distinct from agriculture aside from his reference to contract farming - a model which itself is plagued with numerous problems as anyone engaged in cotton or tobacco in Zimbabwe will attest.

What Hanlon sees in purely racial terms - taking back land from whites - was much more than that. Land resettlement switched resources - workers and capital - from a relatively high-productivity commercial farm sector, able to develop agribusiness linkages with manufacturers and retailers in Zimbabwe and abroad, to a low productivity, smallholder sector where the difficulties of building such links are far greater. In agriculture, value-addition is concentrated at the downstream end of the value chain and unless farmers can participate in value chains they will be left behind. Hanlon's failure to even mention the devastating impact of land resettlement on industrial production and thereby on value-addition highlights his political and racist myopia.

 Leaving aside such tiresome economic realities, perhaps the most depressing aspect of Hanlon's work is his blithe disregard of institutional economics. If Hanlon and his ilk are to be believed, corruption, the rule of law, democracy and human rights have no role to play in the development process. The fact that 13 years after the land reform programme, the same men and women - in politics, business, government and the security services - are using precisely the same language and arguments to justify expropriation of mines and businesses, is studiously ignored. By condoning if not glorifying such conduct, Hanlon et al have demonstrated that in their view the end justifies the means. In the process, they ignore the 60 percent of the Zimbabwe population that live in poverty and the 50 percent (minimum) formally unemployed while simultaneously demonstrating their ignorance of the crucial role of strong institutions in the development process.

Quite what Hanlon's article was meant to achieve is far from clear. Is it just a plug for his book? Is it intended to win votes for Zanu-PF at the forthcoming election? Revisionism of this kind might be good for selling books or even winning votes but it adds nothing to the serious debate about the role of agriculture - and more specifically smallholder agriculture - in economic development in the new normal global economy of today. A sorry comment not just on Hanlon's journalism but indeed on the LSE.

Tony Hawkins is Professor of Economics at the Graduate School of Management at the University of Zimbabwe. He writes about Zimbabwe in the Financial Times.

The article was first published in the German magazine welt-sichten ( www.welt-sichten.org ).

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Comments

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 responses to this article

If Smith was a racist, Mugabe was an ubber racist
Smith left the black people something, Mugabe chased every white farmer out of Zimbabwe. So well done tyrant Mugabe, the greatest racist ever to walk on African soil.

by Nasdaq7 on May 31 2013, 22:42
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Victor writes the history.
So ZANUpf have at last found a fitting replacement for their late praise singer David Martin.

by Harper on May 31 2013, 23:05
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re: HANLON's affilliation with the LSE......Prof HAWKINS writes.....
"One might have hoped that HANLON's affiliation with the LSE (London School of Economics) would have opened his eyes to this. Sadly not."

I have to disagree with Prof HAWKINS here, for he purports to presume that the LSE is a reputable & . .more

by John Austin on June 01 2013, 00:02
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Hawkins' folly
For a man apparently high on an aggregate approach to the economic history of Zimbabwe in the past 13 years, Hawkins is strangely quiet about the biggest factor in that economy.

Hawkins faults Hanlon for only focusing on the success of . .more

by Batanai on June 01 2013, 02:53
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@Batanai's sophistry......

......actually includes enough truth to make it seem respectable. Therefore it warrants repeating what BATANAI JONGWE has to write above, viz:-

"That there were no sanctions against the Zimbabwean economy, just personal "restrictions" . .more

by John Austin on June 01 2013, 10:55
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Lost reputation
The LSE lost its academic integrity 40 years ago when Prof Hans Eysenck was physically assaulted and had to be escorted from the premises by police after being invited to present his findings on 'The Biological Basis of Intelligence'.

The . .more

by Ophthal on June 01 2013, 13:49
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@Batanai
Please specify these devastating sanctions , aside from western induced drought and food aid that are bringing a once prosperous country to it's knees. Global sanctions affected the SA economy but they still managed to be the powerhouse of Africa.

by Rock Rabbit on June 01 2013, 16:08
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@Rock Rabbit
Global sanctions were imposed on Ian Smith's Rhodesia and despite the war, he still handed Mugabe the jewel of Africa. But these dummy brainwashed idiots are so busy looting and destroying the country to retain power, they have to use all the excuses . .more

by Matanzima on June 02 2013, 07:33
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Maxie DooPree
If anyone has Max's e-mail address could they send this article on to him? He may find it disturbing.

by Moor on June 02 2013, 10:30
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Max du Preez, Joe Hanlon, Saif Gaddafi, Bob Mugabe, and LSE......

.....spot the common thread.

One seasoned (& honest) regional Reporter (still resident in Zim) had his slant posted on POLWEB recently, viz:-

"Max du Preez wrong about "Zimbabwe's flourishing farms"
Jan Raath.....02 May . .more

by John Austin on June 02 2013, 12:02
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Good Money
The book is now available off the shelf in SA at all good book stores

http://www.amazon.com/books/dp/1565495209

Interesting that some agree with the Hanlon thesis ?
Here is the clue
"there are many who are beginning to wonder if . .more

by Bibliophile on June 02 2013, 13:15
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Good Science ?
A bit dated

http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/highlights/2009/06/zimbabwe/

but you get the idea
Science and technology have in the mean time advanced and more accurate results are likely.

Perhaps someone else will go and find . .more

by Bibliophile on June 02 2013, 14:36
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From the "Hastings" ........
You can read in the first person here

http://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2013/05/20/difficult-lessons-from-zimbabwe-that-some-south-africans-just-dont-want-to-hear/

Ian Scoones

I see some familiars -- most interesting -- and . .more

by Bibliophile on June 03 2013, 01:46
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zimbabwe
Nasdaq7 who gave the white farmers permission to go there and steal land it should have never happen it is right to through them out go back to England where have you seen black people steal land in Europe go back home and don't go back

by mbali on June 03 2013, 03:42
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Dismal failure
If Zimbabwe was a success story, half it's working population would not be in South Africa legally or illegally taking local jobs, or otherwise, making a great contribution to crime. Enough said!!
Mugabe got his way because of "political correctness" . .more

by Wizard on June 03 2013, 05:42
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Two opposite views

There are two extreme views - that the Black majority is incapable of joining the first world and should remain in the subsistence prison of family owned, small-scale farming without the use of mechanisation, with only the elite enriching themselves . .more

by Dinks on June 03 2013, 06:43
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Here's the link to Max's work of art if anyone wants to reread
http://www.iol.co.za/mercury/we-can-learn-from-zim-s-flourishing-farms-1.1508335

by Brett on June 03 2013, 07:58
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Where is the article of Joseph Hanlon?

This article of Mr Hawkins does not give us a reference, or a name of the article to which it is responding.

I have searched for a Joseph Hanlon article that corresponds but I cannot find one.

I know that Joe Hanlon wrote some good . .more

by Domza on June 03 2013, 08:17
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Mlungu Marxist Missionaries like Dominique Tweedy
Are horrendous curses to Africa's development.
They will back the worst possible wreck & loot dictators in the Continent, from Machel, to Agostinho Neto / dos Santos and Mugabe.
Well, for not mention our own Zupta, also known as fake king . .more

by Injala Apera on June 03 2013, 09:13
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Land reforms (1)
The English have this marvellous saying: "The proof of the pudding is in the eating".

The proof of Mugabe's land reform program and also that of the ANC/COSATU/SACP regime will be in the results.

I cannot comment on Zim's results but to . .more

by James Bell on June 03 2013, 09:15
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Land reforms (2)
Farming is one of the toughest occupations to make a success of. It is definitely not for sissies.

It is also one of the crucial activities for any nation that must be efficient as it provides one of the basic necessities of life namely food. . .more

by James Bell on June 03 2013, 09:25
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Land Reform in Zim
Surely one will not expect any positive response from white South Africans which claims that the Zim land reform of 2000 to-date was a success, the reason being that there is a lot of fear amongst that group. When you have oppressed people for centuries , . .more

by Mellow on June 03 2013, 10:26
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Tony Howkins is the one suffering from "racist myopia"
This Hawkins fella says, "The success or otherwise of land resettlement in Zimbabwe cannot be judged by how many people are on the land now, but by what is produced, what incomes are earned and whether the economy as a whole benefitted." But that is . .more

by Veja on June 03 2013, 10:46
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Matabeleland
@Veja

Who occupied this bit of country before it was occupied by the Matabele ( Khumalo people )

The Shona ?

WHAT happened to them ? ( WHAT rule of law ? )

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mzilikazi

The lessons . .more

by Bibliophile on June 03 2013, 11:01
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@Domza
It appears very few read my posts ( which really contain all the information and answers )
but -- anyway

Your answer
April issue of "welt-sichten"

( As referenced in above original main article -- which is obvioulsy a reposte to . .more

by Bibliophile on June 03 2013, 11:12
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@ Domza -- Easy-peasy
See I have even made it easier

http://www.welt-sichten.org/artikel/10213/das-maerchen-von-den-boesen-landbesetzern

If you are still having problems get one of the old East German cohorts to assist


by Bibliophile on June 03 2013, 11:27
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Joseph Hanlon hates whites
A bit of research on Joseph Hanlon's profile will explain to you why he's "racist." He's in on The Agenda.

by Cap'n Haddock on June 03 2013, 11:33
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Zimbabwe and Uncle Bob
HA HA HA! lmao ... I did not even get to the point .... just reading the first half shows how cretins rule!

by Snake eyes on June 03 2013, 11:36
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Zimbabwe land reform
A reminder: when dealing with colonial land expropriation it is imperative to dip into th history of th land and th laws of colonial expropriation, land distribution and reform; not excluding th critical agreements to facilitate peaceful land reform. In . .more

by Williams t e on June 03 2013, 12:39
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@Veja
In the global economy Zimbabwe has slipped back 40 years.
It will remain subsistence based farming by all '250,000 black Zimbabwean' until the Chinese re-colonise and turn it into huge foreign owned and staffed grain farms to feed China.
But . .more

by DABB on June 03 2013, 12:53
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When, Veja WHEN? Give us the year! Veja on June 03 2013, 10:46
"in the original white land invasion during the time of Ian Smith"

You talk such K**. Your lil buddy too; "th erstwhile masters reneged on critical agreements between th master and th former slave. by Williams t e on June 03 2013, . .more

by Brett on June 03 2013, 13:22
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@Bibliophile and @DABB
Sophistry is unbecoming of you, leave that to the resident expert. To bring back historical issues, whose accuracy is doddgy at best, is running away from the pertinent legal argument of restitutive justce in a sovereign domain known variously as Rhodesia . .more

by Veja on June 03 2013, 13:30
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@by Veja on June 03 2013, 10:46....about those 6000x ZIM farmers.....

.....where you untruthfully write:-
"The truth is 6000 white commercial farmers displaced about 250,000 black Zimbabwean in order to get their grubby hands on the land."

THE TRUTH, in actual fact is that the commercial farming community . .more

by John Austin on June 03 2013, 13:32
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@MBALI.... rubbish, comrade......

....."FARMERS" are just that = Farmers.

Their colour is irrelevant.... (unless you are playing race politics so popular in nations governed by dictatores & criminals).

Moreover, those who do it - FARMING - feed the rest of us (or . .more

by John Austin on June 03 2013, 13:54
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Veja would buy his food from Woolies
Imported.

The rest of South Africa? Let them eat cake.

by Brett on June 03 2013, 14:29
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@Brett - Aw c'mon boet take a chill pill
This is no place for shouting, take it elsewhere. You ask when did the white land invasion start? According to a new book "Zimbabwe takes back its land" a well researched tome by Hanlon, Manjengwa and Smart "white farmers were only established in . .more

by Veja on June 03 2013, 15:06
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Why are Seffricans
arguing about the the great Zimbabwean land grab, either alleged by whites or actually by MugAbe?

We must listen to Max du Preez and learn from it.

The only thing I have so far learned is that land grabbing never solves anything. It just . .more

by James Bell on June 03 2013, 15:45
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zimbabwe land reform
Its only whites commenting what happens in Zimbabwe should take place in South Africa these racist whites have it all you stole the land from black people now you dont want to share we must just take it all

by piet skiet on June 03 2013, 16:10
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Racism
Well said Tony. Hanlon is an economic racist. From an old friend.,

by Wolf on June 03 2013, 16:19
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@James Bell
Nobody ever said you 'stole' but we refer to occupying land without adequate compensation. When you buy a car from a bank and you can't or in this case won't pay, the bank's legal recourse is to repossess the car amongst the remedies available to it. . .more

by Veja on June 03 2013, 16:45
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Who has the facts?

Who has a verifiable source giving the number of farms that were obtained via expropriation through the National Party and those that were bought on the open market?

by Dinks on June 03 2013, 17:00
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Veja
You think the ANC will offer that standard of education to the masses of 'garden boys' graduating each year from our system. LOL They may have more success in the Western Cape and that is exactly the point of my sarcastic remark.

by DABB on June 03 2013, 17:35
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@ James Bell
You CANNOT purchase something from someone that does not have the ability to sell it !

The understanding of Dingane and the Zulu as to what the Voortrekker deed of sale represented is completely different to what the Voortrekkers thought -- or . .more

by Bibliophile on June 03 2013, 17:49
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Hanlon and Oswald Mosely
Both offered comfort to failed criminal regimes.


by DavidJ on June 03 2013, 19:51
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A bibliophile
"You CANNOT purchase something from someone that does not have the ability to sell"


Purporting to sell something you do not own is called fraud.


I must say this is the very first time I have heard the Voortrekkers referred to . .more

by DavidJ on June 03 2013, 19:54
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@wizard
If europe is such a success was is all deese white poeples here in afrika? just asking man.

by Jan van Riebeeck on June 03 2013, 20:42
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The academics know all the answers
now who would you believe an academic from a London University or one from a Zimbabwe University ?

by Stuart on June 03 2013, 20:45
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"You stole our land"; how pathetically childish!
I've never come across a piece of land marked "For ethnic group @$%^&* only".

Whatever made any piece of land on earth the "property" of these cretins who shout "You stole our land!"? In many cases their forbears never occupied any of the land . .more

by Mute Fool on June 03 2013, 23:40
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@STUART re Academics & Universities & Credibility.....

....."now who would you believe: an academic from a London University or one from a Zimbabwe University ?"

Good question & the answer isn't obvious - hence why HANLON and Tjums appear to trump Hawkins. But if you ask real academics of . .more

by John Austin on June 04 2013, 01:24
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John John -- being too particular !
Oxford / Cambridge

You have read about Cecil John Rhodes -- he of Rhodesian fame ?
Why not do a bit of "Truth-Commissioning" as to his time at Oxford
AND
The RHODES SCHOLARSHIPS

While attending Oriel College, Rhodes became a . .more

by Bibliophile on June 04 2013, 08:25
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@Bibliophile and others (1)
I can agree with you on some points and not on others.

It may well be that the Voortrekkers did not understand that in black culture tribal land can never be sold as blacks never developed the concept of private ownership. Therefor the . .more

by James Bell on June 04 2013, 09:27
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@Bibliophile and others (2)
Veja, how do you determine in this day and age which black tribes lived on particular piece of land and what the value or market of the land was when it was purchased. And what was the basis of the transaction. Did the blacks that lived there have title . .more

by James Bell on June 04 2013, 09:41
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@Bibliophile and others (3)
Why did blacks never develop prosperous farms with homesteads, dams in small rivers for irrigation, roads, enclosed pastures, ploughed fields, commercial farming etc even today? Please explain why thriving farms under white ownership and management, when . .more

by James Bell on June 04 2013, 09:55
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@Bibliophile and others (4)
was actually a magnanimous gesture, same as they allowed and recognized ownership of farms and other fixed property by the Boers provided these could be proved with the proper title deeds.

All I know is that the ANCs land distribution program is . .more

by James Bell on June 04 2013, 10:04
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@James Bell.....

.....good resume of factual reality.

BUT, it doesn't promise something for nothing, nor stoke covetous racist smouldering resentment that produce black-white voting thoughts.

FOR your trouble, it is YOU who will be labelled a . .more

by John Austin on June 04 2013, 12:29
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Logical
@ James Bell
How is it possible for people that call themselves "jewish" to claim land ( and a country ) after the passage of thousands of years ?
SURELY
IF
You grant the jews right of occupation to Palestine so you must also , following . .more

by Bibliophile on June 04 2013, 14:41
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@by Bibliophile-Jun04-8:25....reCJR, Academia, Hawkins v Hanlon, etc...

....I did respond to you, straight after my above response to James BELL.

The upshot is
- your further response to James Bell above, and
- the removal of my response to you.... did you REPORT IT ?

If so, why so . .more

by John Austin on June 04 2013, 14:51
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"Rightful owners"
I do wonder what the world would look like if all land were given back to their "original owners".
The way things were done in Zimbabwe and South Africa, the "handing over of power" will go down in the history books as "extraordinary". The way the . .more

by Wizard on June 04 2013, 19:15
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@Bibliophile
I am hesitant to comment on the Palestine controversy.

What I do know is that the triumphant allied forces suffered from one hell of a guilty conscience after the death camps at Aushwits, Dachau, Belsen and Treblinka were discovered, the open pit . .more

by James Bell on June 04 2013, 20:36
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@Bibliophile continued
your spoils of war you are just sowing the seeds for the next war. Just this morning somebody explained on the Radio that one of the reasons for WW@ was the fact that Imperial Germany was forced to cede large tracts of land and citizens to the allies, . .more

by James Bell on June 04 2013, 20:53
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@ James -- Correction
UN to claim a homeland based on biblical scripture, which just happend to be part of the former Ottoman Empire, which just happened to be an ally of Germany,
-------
Go read the inside history of the Balfour Declaration ( in which slim Jannie . .more

by Bibliophile on June 05 2013, 14:17
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JOIN ILLUMINATI ONLINE TODAY
Join illuminati - Freemason online today, to meet your demand and acquire wealth, power,protection and influence etc. Also get instant sum of 500,000 dollars with a free home anywhere you choose to live in the world, 2,500 dollars monthly as a salary, if . .more

by Calisto on November 28 2013, 08:07
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